Global Change and Vulnerability
This is the page for the Global Change and Vulnerability maps & graphics made by UNEP/DEWA/GRID-Geneva.
|2006 global dead zones (2008-06)|
The number of coastal dead zones has doubled every decade since 1960(1). Many are seasonal, but some of the low-oxygen areas persist year-round. More than 100 000 km2 of marginal sea are affected, plus numerous bays and estuaries which are the most altered(1, 3). The world’s largest dead zone is found in the Baltic Sea, and the second is the Gulf of Mexico. Oxygen-depleted zones shown are associated with either major population concentration or with watersheds that deliver large quantities of nutrients to coastal waters (such as fertilizers). Out of 350 areas spotted in 2006, 175 are of concern, 161 are documented and only 13 have shown improvement.
|Fishkills linked to HABs worldwide as of 2006 (2008-06)|
Harmful algal blooms can result in extensive fishkills. For example, during the night of 19-20 August 2003, millions of young menhaden were killed on the west shore of Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island USA, probably because of oxygen depletion resulting from an algal bloom. The map shows the location where extensive fishkills were reported as of 2006.
|Surface temperature anomalies between 1998 and 2003 summers (2008-05)|
|Reefs at risk and deforestation (2008-02)|
This map shows that in general, risk related to sedimentation is either linked with land clearing and deforestation leading to high runoff rates, or discharges from major water systems.
|Tourism in the Caribbean (2008-02)|
|Freight corridors, tunnels and passes (2007-11)|
|Freight tansport in Europe, total volume per capita (2007-11)|
|Road transport in Europe, 2003 (2007-11)|
|Share of internal rail freight transport, total freight volume per capita (2007-11)|