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 Global Glacier Changes: facts and figures
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Fig. 0.1a-b Morteratsch Glacier, 1985-2007.Recession of Morteratsch Glacier, Switzerland, between 1985 and 2007. Source: J. Alean, SwissEduc (www.swisseduc.ch) / Glaciers online (www.glaciers-online.net).
Fig. 1.1 Components of the cryosphere and their typical time scales. Source: Fig. 4.1 of IPCC (2007).
Fig. 2.1 Franz-Josef Glacier, 2007.Franz-Josef Glacier, New Zealand, is a temperate valley glacier in a maritime climate descending into rain forest. Source: M. Hambrey, SwissEduc (www.swisseduc.ch).
Fig. 2.2 Commonwealth Glacier, 2007. Commonwealth Glacier, Taylor Valley, Antarctica, is a cold glacier in a continental climate (10 January 2007). In the background Canada Glacier and frozen Lake Fryxell are shown. Source: D. Stumm, University of Otago, New Zealand.
Fig. 3.1 a—d Glaciers in Bhutan, Himalayas. (57x42 km): a) green ASTER band, b) shortwave-infrared, c) colour composite of the green, red and near-infrared bands, and d) colour composite of red, near-infrared and short-wave infrared bands.
Fig. 3.2 Gaisberg- and Rotmoosferner. Gaisbergferner (left) and Rotmoosferner (right), Austria (July 2002). These typical valley glaciers were connected during the last ice age (transfluence zone in the centre of the photograph). Source: I. Roer, University of Zurich, Switzerland.
Fig. 3.3 Piedmont glaciers. Piedmont glaciers in southern Axel Heiberg Island, Canadian Arctic. Aerial photograph (1977). Source: J. Alean, SwissEduc (www.swisseduc.ch) / Glaciers online (www.glaciers-online.net).
Fig. 3.4 Jostedalsbreen (ice cap) with outlet glaciers. Jostedalsbreen, Norway, is a typical ice cap with several outlet glaciers, e.g., Nigardsbreen in the centre of the aerial photography of 1982. Source: Photo of unknown photographer provided by the archive of the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE).
Fig. 3.5 Balfour Glacier. Debris-covered tongue of Balfour Glacier, New Zealand. Source: M. Hoelzle, University of Zurich, Switzerland.
Fig. 3.6 Global glacier inventories.Worldwide distribution of perennial surface ice on land. The map shows the approximate distribution of glaciers, ice caps and the two ice sheets from ESRI’s Digital Chart of the World (DCW), overlaid by the point layer of the World Glacier Inventory (WGI) and the polygons of the Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS) databases (status June 2008).
Fig. 3.7 Regional overview of the distribution of glaciers and ice caps.Regional overview of the distribution of glaciers and ice caps. Source: Dyurgerov and Meier (2005).
Table 3.1 Ice sheets, ice shelves, glaciers and ice caps. Area, volume and sea level equivalent of glaciers and ice caps, ice shelves and the two continental ice sheets as given in the latest report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The values for glaciers and ice caps denote the smallest and largest estimates, excluding the ice bodies surrounding the ice sheets on Greenland and Antarctica. Source: IPCC (2007), Table 4.1
Fig. 4.1 Front position measurement (Forel 1895). Sketch explaining the measurement of the glacier front position as published by Forel (1895).
Fig. 4.2 Length change measurement at Steinlimmi Glacier. Length change measurement at Steinlimmi Glacier, Switzerland. An investigator determines the direction from a marked boulder in the forefield to the glacier terminus. Source: S. Kappeler, Switzerland.
Fig. 4.3 Drilling of an ablation stake.Source: D. Vonder Mühll, University of Zurich, Switzerland.
Fig. 4.4 Accumulation measurements in a snow pit. Source: M. Hoelzle, University of Zurich, Switzerland.
Fig. 4.5 Screenshot of meta-data file in GoogleEarth. Meta-data file with information about available glacier fluctuation data displayed in Google Earth application.
Table 4.1 Global and regional overview of the available length change and mass balance observations. Global and regional overview of the distribution of glaciers and ice caps as well as of reported length change and mass balance observation series. Source: Macroregions and ice cover areas (in sq km) after Dyurgerov and Meier (2005); information on glacier fluctuations from WGMS.
Fig. 4.6 Worldwide length change observations. The map shows the location of glaciers with reported information on length changes. Data series with surveys after 1999 are plotted as red and orange circles when having more or equal and less than 30 observations, respectively. The locations of observation series which were discontinued before 2000 are shown as black crosses. Data source: glacier information from WGMS; country outlines and surface ice on land cover from ESRI’s Digital Chart of the World.
Fig. 4.7 Worldwide mass balance measurements. The map shows the location of ice bodies with reported measurements of the glacier mass balance. Data series with surveys after 1999 are plotted as red and orange squares when having more or equal and less than 30 observation years, respectively. The locations of observation series discontinued before 2000 are shown as black crosses. Data source: glacier information from WGMS; country outlines and surface ice on land cover from ESRI’s Digital Chart of the World.
Fig. 4.8 Length change and mass balance surveys.Temporal overview on the number of reported length change (light brown bars) and mass balance surveys (dark blue bars). Note that the scaling of the number of observations on the y-axis changes between the regions. The total number of length change (FV) and mass balance (MB) series are given below the name of the region. Source: Data from WGMS.
Fig. 5.1 Glacier length changes. Temporal overview on short-term glacier length changes. The number of advancing (blue) and retreating (red) glaciers are plotted as stacked columns in the corresponding survey year. This figure shows 30 420 length change observations with a time range of less than 4 years (between survey and reference year). This corresponds to almost 85 per cent of the reported data which in addition include observations covering a longer time scale and/or stationary conditions. The time period of glacier LIA maximum extents is given according to the regional information in chapter 6. Note that the scaling of the number of glaciers on the y-axis changes between the regions. Source: figure based on data analysis by R. Prinz, University of Innsbruck, Austria; data from WGMS.
Fig 5.2 Variegated Glacier. Variegated Glacier, Alaska, during a surge (photograph taken in 1983). Source: J. Alean, SwissEduc (www.swisseduc.ch) / Glaciers online (www.glaciers-online.net).
Fig. 5.3 Perito Moreno. Perito Moreno, Argentina, is a prime example of a calving glacier (photograph taken in December 2005). Source: J. Nötzli, University of Zurich, Switzerland.
Fig. 5.4 Bhutan Himalaya, 1990-2001.Luana, Bhutan Himalayas (17 x 13 km). Details from a Landsat image of 1990 (left) and an ASTER image of 2001 (right). Most of the lakes have increased in area etween 1990 and 2001, either due to retreat of the calving front, or from growing and connecting supraand pro-glacial ponds. On October 7, 1994, the lake to the right of the images, Lugge Tsho, burst out and caused a major flood (see deposits in the valley (circle)). Source: A. Kääb, University of Oslo, Norway.
Fig. 5.5 Mount Saint Helens. High angle view of Mount St. Helens’s crater, USA, with new dome and glacier (photograph taken on September 21, 2005). Source: J. Ewert, J. Vallance, US Geological Survey.
Fig. 5.6 a-d Briksdalsbreen Glacier.Advance and retreat of Briksdalsbreen, an outlet glacier of Jostedalsbreen, Norway, in a photo series of the years 1989, 1995, 2001 and 2007. Source: S. Winkler, University of Würzburg, Germany.
Fig. 5.7 a-b Peyto Glacier, 1966-2001. Retreat of Peyto Glacier, Canadian Rockies, between 1966 and 2001. Source: W.E.S. Henoch and M.N. Demuth, Canada.
Fig. 5.8 a-f Spatio-temporal overview on glacier mass changes. Spatio-temporal overview on glacier mass changes. The average annual mass balance for nine sectors of the globe are shown for the decades (a) 1946–55, (b) 1956–65, (c) 1966–75, (d) 1976–85, (e) 1986–95, and (f) 1996–2005. Sectors with measurements are coloured according to the mean annual specific mass balance in metre w.e. with positive balances in blue, ice losses up to 0.25 m w.e. in orange and above that in red; sectors without data in grey. Average decadal mass balance values based on less than 100 observations (marked in italics) are less representative for the entire sector. For each decade, the global mean (gm) annual mass balance in m w.e. and the number of observations (no) are indicated. Source: Data from WGMS.
Fig. 5.9 Cumulative specific mass balance. The cumulative specific mass balance curves are shown for the mean of all glaciers and 30 ‘reference’ glaciers with (almost) continuous series since 1976. Source: Data from WGMS.
Fig. 6.0.1 The selected eleven glacierised macroregions. The selected macroregions are presented in detail in the chapters 6.1 – 6.11. Source: ESRI Digital Chart of the World (DCW), WGMS.
Fig. 6.0.2a WGMS glacier data. Global distribution of glaciers, ice caps and ice sheets and WGMS glacier data. Source: ESRI Digital Chart of the World (DCW), WGMS.
Fig. 6.0.2b-c Selected front variation and mass balance data. Overview of front variation and mass balance data used in chapters 6.1 – 6.11 for both hemispheres. Source: ESRI Digital Chart of the World (DCW), WGMS.
Fig. 6.0.2d—e Selected front variation and mass balance series. Front variation and mass balance data used in sections 6.1 – 6.11. Source: ESRI Digital Chart of the World (DCW), WGMS.
Fig. 6.1.1 Punca Jaya. Oblique aerial photograph looking east at Northwall Firn, Meren Glacier and Carstensz Glacier (left to right) on Puncak Jaya. Source: Photograph of 1936 by J.J. Dozy, provided by the United States Geological Survey (Allison and Peterson 1989).
Fig. 6.2.1 a-b Mount Kilimanjaro, 1950-1999. Mount Kilimanjaro, Tanzania, northern icefield. Source: Upper photograph taken in the early 1950s by J. West, lower photograph taken in 1999 by J. Jafferji.
Fig. 6.2.2 Lewis Glacier. Lewis Glacier, Mount Kenya, in the mid 1990s. Source: S. Ardito.
Fig. 6.2.3 Kilimanjaro. Mount Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. Space view of the glaciers around the crater (center) and typical surrounding clouds. Source: ASTER satellite image (50 x 45 km), 19 August 2004.
Fig. 6.3.1 Franz-Josef Glacier. Oblique aerial photograph showing the west coast of the South Island with Franz-Josef Glacier and Mount Cook photograph taken on March 27, 2006). Source: M. Hoelzle, University of Zurich, Switzerland.
Fig. 6.3.2 Brewster Glacier. Brewster Glacier (on left) with almost no accumulation area. The oblique aerial photograph was taken during the end-of-summer snowline survey on 14 March, 2008. Source: A. Willsman (NIWA), as part of New Zealand Foundation of Research, Science and Technology contract C01X0701.
Fig. 6.3.3 Tasman and Murchison Glaciers. Tasman (left) and Murchison (right) Glaciers region. Source: ASTER satellite image (23 x 31 km) and close-ups, 29 April 2000.
Fig. 6.4.1 Nigardsbreen. View toward the proglacial lake and the tongue of Nigardsbreen, Norway, Jostedalsbreen Ice Cap in the background (photograph taken in July 2005). Source: I. Roer, University of Zurich, Switzerland.
Fig. 6.4.2 Kebnekaise region. Tarfala research station in the Kebnekaise region (Sweden), with Isfallsglaciären in the background (photograph taken in August 2007). Source: P. Jansson, University of Stockholm, Sweden.
Fig. 6.4.3 Svartisen Ice Caps. Svartisen Ice Caps, Norway, with Engabreen outlet glacier to the middle left. Source: ASTER satellite image (35x21 km) and close-ups, 11 August 2006.
6.5.1 Maladeta Massif. Aerial view toward the Maladeta Massif, Spain, with Pico d’Aneto (left), Aneto Glacier (center) as well as Maladeta Glacier (right) from September 2002. Source: M. Arenillas, Ingeniería 75, Spain.
Fig. 6.5.2 Mount Elbrus. Mount Elbrus, seen from the north (photograph taken in September 2007). Source: A. Kääb, University of Oslo, Norway.
Fig. 6.5.3 Grosser Aletsch. Bernese Alps with Grosser Aletsch Glacier in the center, Swiss Alps. Source: ASTER satellite image (32 x 44 km) and close-ups, 21 July 2006.
Fig. 6.6.1 Glaciarised volcanoes in Colombia. The view to the north shows the active volcanos Nevado del Tolima (foreground) and Nevado del Ruiz (background, right) as well as the the inactive Santa Isabel (background, center). The photograph was taken in 2002. Source: J. Ramírez Cadena, INGEOMINAS, Colombia.
Fig. 6.6.2 Zongo Glacier. Zongo Glacier and downstream hydroelectric power station located north-east of La Paz city, Bolivia. Photograph taken in July 2006. Source: B. Francou, IRD, Bolivia.
Fig. 6.6.3 San Quintín Glacier. San Quintín Glacier, Northern Patagonian Icefield. Source: ASTER satellite image in artificial natural colors (35 x 28 km) and close-ups, 2 May 2000.
Fig. 6.7.1 Maliy Aktru Glacier. Maliy Aktru Glacier located in the Russian Altay (photograph taken in July 2007). Source: W. Hagg, LMU Munich, Germany.
Fig. 6.7.2 Kozelskiy Glacier. Kozelskiy Glacier on Kamchatka in September 2007. Source: A.G. Manevich, Russian Academy of Sciences.
Fig. 6.7.3 Severnaya Zemlya. Ice caps on Severnaya Zemlya, Russian Arctic. ASTER satellite image (63 x 47 km) and close-ups, 19 August 2003.
Fig. 6.8.1 Mapple and Melville Glaciers. Oblique aerial photograph with Antarctic Peninsula plateau in the background (March 11, 2007). From north to south (right-left) the Mapple and Melville Glaciers, which are calving at present into the Larsen B embayment. Both glaciers nourished formerly the Larsen B ice shelf, which collapsed within a few weeks in February–March 2002, during the warmest summer ever recorded in the region. Source: P. Skvarca, Instituto Antártico Argentino.
Fig. 6.8.2 Wright Lower Glacier. Wright Lower Glacier with Lake Brownworth, Dry Valleys in Antarctica (January 14, 2007). The Wright Lower Glacier is fed from the Wilson- Piedmont Glacier. The Onyx River dewaters from Lake Brownworth into the drainless Lake Vanda. The nunatak is called King Pin (820 m) and at the far back Mt Erebus (3794 m), the most southern active volcano is visible. Source: D. Stumm, University of Otago, New Zealand.
Fig. 6.8.3 Vega Island. Bahía del Diablo on Vega Island, at the northeastern side of the Antarctic Peninsula. Source: ASTER satellite image (37 x 20 km) and close-ups, 27 January 2006.
Fig. 6.9.1 Ts. Tuyuksuyskiy Glacier. Tsentralniy Tuyuksuyskiy, Kazakh Tien
Shan, in September 2003. Source: V.P. Blagoveshchenskiy.
Fig. 6.9.2 Baltoro Glacier in the Karakoram. Panoramic view with direction NNE to the confluence of the Godwin Austen Glacier, flowing south from K2 (8 611 m asl), with the Baltoro Glacier in the Karakoram. Source: C. Mayer, Commission for Glaciology of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences.
Fig. 6.9.3 Himalaya main ridge. Himalaya main ridge between Bhutan and Tibet. Source: ASTER satellite image (56 x 32 km) and close-ups, 20 January 2001.
Fig. 6.10.1 Gulkana Glacier. Gulkana Glacier in the Alaska Range, USA. Photograph was taken October 5, 2003. Source: R. March, United States Geological Survey.
Fig. 6.10.2 South Cascade Glacier. South Cascade Glacier in the Canadian Rockies. Photograph was taken in 2001. Source: M.N. Demuth, Natural Resources Canada.
Fig. 6.10.3 Kenai Mountains. Section of Kenai Mountains, Alaska, USA, with Wolverine Glacier to the middle bottom. Source: ASTER satellite image (37 x 48 km) and close-ups, 8 September 2005.
Fig. 6.11.1 Waldemarbreen. Waldemarbreen in the western part of Svalbard (summer of 2006). Source: I. Sobota, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Poland.
Fig. 6.11.2 Hofsjøkull. The Hofsjøkull Ice Cap, Iceland. Source: ASTER satellite image (50 x 51 km), 13 August 2003.
Fig. 6.11.3 Grinnell Land Icefield. Glaciers draining the Grinnell Land Icefield on Ellesmere Island, Canadian Arctic, and close-up. Source: ASTER satellite image (62 x 61 km) and close-up, 31 July 2000.
Fig. 7.1a Muir Glacier, 1941-2004. Photo comparison of Muir Glacier, Alaska, which is a typical tidewater glacier. The photo 7.1a was taken on 13 August 1941 by W. O. Field; the photo 7.1b was taken on 31 August 2004 by B. F. Molnia of the United States Geological Survey. Source: US National Snow and Ice Data Center.
Chapter 6.1 New Guinea glaciers.
Chapter 6.2 Africa glaciers.
Chapter 6.3 New Zealand glaciers.
Chapter 6.4 Scandinavia glaciers.
Chapter 6.5 Central Europe glaciers.
Chapter 6.6 South America glaciers.
Chapter 6.7 Northern Asia glaciers.
Chapter 6.8 Antartica glaciers.
Chapter 6.9 Central Asia glaciers.
Chapter 6.10 North America glaciers.
Chapter 6.11 Arctic glaciers.
 
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