United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
Global Environment Outlook-1 - The Web version

Chapter 2: Regional Perspectives

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Polar Regions


AMAP. 1996a. Interim Report to the Third Ministerial Conference, Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy. Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP). Inuvik, Canada.

AMAP. 1996b. AMAP Assessment Report.

Ashford, J.R., and J.P. Croxall. 1994. Seabird interactions with longlining operations for Dissostichus eleginoides at the South Sandwich Islands and South Georgia. CCAMLR Science. 1:143-153.

Ashford, J.R., and J.P. Croxall. 1995. Seabird interactions with longlining operations for Dissostichus eleginoides around South Georgia, April to May 1994. CCAMLR Science, 2:111-121.

ASOC. 1996. Illegal fishing threatens CCAMLR's ability to manage Antarctica's fisheries. The Antarctica Project 5(2):2. Antarctic and Southern Ocean Coalition (ASOC).

Beltramino, J.C.M. 1993. The Structure and Dynamics of Antarctic Population. Vantage Press. New York.

CAFF. 1996a. Circumpolar Protected Areas Network (CPAN) - Strategy and Action Plan. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF). Habitat Conservation Report No. 6. Directorate for Nature Management. Trondheim, Norway.

CAFF. 1996b. Proposed Protected Areas in the Circumpolar Arctic. CAFF Habitat Conservation Report No. 2. Conservation of Flora and Fauna (CAFF). Directorate for Nature Management. Trondheim, Norway.

CCAMLR. 1993. CCAMLR Newsletter No. 15. November. Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR).

CCAMLR. 1996. Statistical Bulletin 1996 (1986-1995). Hobart.

Cripps, G.C., and J. Priddle. 1991. Hydrocarbons in the Antarctic marine environment. Antarctic Science 3(3):233.

Drewry, D.J., and E.M. Morris. 1992. The response of large ice sheets to climatic change. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B. 338:235-242.

EEA. 1995. Europe's Environment: The Dobríš Assessment. D. Stanners and P. Bourdeau (eds.). Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. Luxembourg.

EEA/NPI. 1996. State of the European Arctic Environment. J.R. Hansen, R. Hansson, and S. Norris (eds.). European Environment Agency/Norwegian Polar Institute (EEA/NPI). EEA Environmental Monograph No. 3. Norsk Polarinstitutt Meddelelser No. 141.

Enzenbacher, D.J. 1993. Tourists in Antarctica numbers and trends. Polar Record 28(164):17-22.

Enzenbacher, D.J. 1994. Antarctic tourism: an overview of 1992/3 season activity, recent developments, and emerging issues. Polar Record 30(173):105-116.

EPPR. 1996. Emergency Prevention Preparedness and Response: Environmental Risk Analysis of Arctic Activities. Report No. 1. AEPS Working Group on Emergency Prevention, Preparedness and Response (EPPR).

Farman, J.C., B.G. Gardiner, and J.D. Shanklin. 1985. Large losses of total ozone in Antarctica reveal seasonal CLOx/NOx Interaction. Nature 315:207-210.

Fox, A.J., and A.P.R. Cooper. 1994. Measured properties of the Antarctic ice sheet derived from the SCAR Antarctic digital database. Polar Record 30(174):204.

Fullard, C.K., T.R. Karl, and K. Ya. Vinnikov. 1990. Observed climate variations and change. In: J.T. Houghton, G.J. Jenkins, and J.J. Ephraums (eds.). Climate Change: The IPCC Scientific Assessment. Report prepared for the IPCC by Working Group 1. 195-238. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

Futsaeter, G., G. Eidnes, G. Halmo, S. Johansen, H.P. Mannvik, L.K. Sydnes, and U. Witte. 1991. Report on Oil Pollution. The State of the Arctic Environment Reports. Arctic Centre, University of Lapland.

General Assembly. 1996. Question of Antarctica: State of the Environment in Antarctica. Report of the Secretary General to the 51st Session of the United Nations General Assembly. A/51/390 Report prepared on behalf of the Secretary General by UNEP with the assistance of the International Centre for Antarctic Information and Research. Christchurch, New Zealand.

Goskomstat of Russia. 1995. The Demographic Yearbook of Russia. Statistical Handbook. State Committee of the Russian Federation for Statistics. Moscow.

IPCC. 1996. Climate Change 1995. The Science of Climate Change. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

IWC. 1996. Data provided by the International Whaling Commission. 14 August 1996. Cambridge.

Jacobs, S.S., and J.C. Comiso. 1993. A recent sea-ice retreat west of the Antarctic Peninsula. Geophysical Research Letters 20(12):1171-1174.

Jacobs, S.S., and H.H. Hartmut. 1996. Antarctic ice sheet melting and the Southeast Pacific. Geophysical Research Letters 23(9):957-960.

Jacobs, S.S., H.H. Helmer, C.S.M. Doake, A. Jenkins, and R.M. Frolich. 1992. Melting of ice shelves and the mass balance of Antarctica. Journal of Glaciology 38:375-387.

Johannessen, O.M., M. Miles, and E. Bjorgo. 1995. The Arctic's shrinking sea ice. Nature 376:126-27.

Kennicutt, M.C., and S.T. Sweet. 1992. Hydrocarbon contamination on the Antarctic Peninsula: III. The Bahia Paraiso two years after the spill. Marine Pollution Bulletin 25 (9-12).

King, J.C. 1994. Recent climate variability in the vicinity of the Antarctic Peninsula. International Journal of Climatology 14:357-369.

Kock, K-H. 1994. Fishing and conservation in southern waters. Polar Record 30(172):3-22.

Lait, L.R., M.R. Schoeberl, and P.A. Newman. 1989. Quasi-biennial modulation of the antarctic ozone depletion. Journal of Geophysical Research 94:11559-11571.

Marshall, P.T. 1957. Primary production in the Arctic. J. Cons. Perm. Int. Explor. Mer. 23:173-177.

McMinn, A., H. Heijnis, and D. Hodgson. 1994. Minimal effects of UV-B radiation on Antarctic diatoms over the past 20 years. Nature 370:547.

Meier, M.F. 1983. Snow and ice in a changing hydrological world. Hydrological Sciences Journal 28(1):3-22.

Molina, M.J., and F.S. Rowland. 1974. Stratospheric sink for chlorofluoromethanes: chlorine atom-catalysed destruction of ozone. Nature 249:810-812.

New Zealand Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 1995. Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources: Fourteenth meeting. Report of the New Zealand Delegation. Hobart.

NSF. 1995. Reported at 7th Antarctic Tour Operators Meeting. National Science Foundation (NSF). July. Washington.

PAME. 1996. Report to the Ministerial Conference on the Protection of The Arctic Environment. AEPS Working Group on Protection of the Arctic Marine Environment. 20-21 March. Inuvik, Canada.

Rott, H., P. Skvarca, and T. Nagler. 1996. Rapid collapse of the Northern Larsen Ice Shelf, Antarctica. Science 271:788.

SFT. 1996. Miljøtilstanden i Norge. Statens forurensningstilsyn.

Skvarca, P. 1993. Fast Recession of the northern Larsen Ice Shelf monitored by space images. Annals of Glaciology 17:317-321.

Smith, R., B. Prezelin, K. Baker, R. Bidigare, N. Boucher, T. Coley, D. Karentz, S. MacIntyre, H. Matlick, D. Menzies, M. Ondrusck, Z. Wan, and K. Waters. 1992. Ozone depletion: ultraviolet radiation and phytoplankton biology in Antarctic waters. Science 255:952.

Smith, W.O. Jr., and E. Sakshaug. 1990. Polar phytoplankton. In: Polar Oceanography, Part B: Chemistry, Biology, and Geology. W.O. Smith, Jr. (ed.). Academic Press. New York.

Stark, P. 1994. Climatic warming in the central Antarctic Peninsula area. Weather 49:215-220.

Strand, P., and A. Cooke (eds). 1995. Environmental Radioactivity in the Arctic. Scientific Committee on Environmental Radioactivity in the Arctic. Norway.

Stonehouse, B. 1989. Polar Ecology. Blackie. London.

Tommervik, H., B.E. Johansen, and J.P. Pedersen. 1995. Monitoring the effects of air pollution on terrestrial ecosystems in Varanger (Norway) and Nikel-Pechanga (Russia) using remote sensing. In: The Science of the Total Environment. 160/161:753-767.

Ucha, S.B., and A.M. Barrio. 1996. Report on Antarctic Tourism Numbers Through the Port of Ushuaia 1995-96. Insituto Fueguino de Turismo. Ushuaia, Argentina.

UNEP. 1994. Environmental Effects of Ozone Depletion: 1994 Assessment. UNEP. Nairobi.

United Kingdom. 1995. Recent Developments in Antarctic Tourism. Information Paper 13, XIX Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting (ATCM). 8-19 May. Seoul.

UNEP/GRID-Christchurch. 1996. Map of Antarctica and the Southern Ocean. Based on SCAR Antarctic Digital Database (ADD), 1993. UNEP/GRID. Christchurch, New Zealand.

Vaughan, D.G., and C.S.M. Doake. 1996. Recent atmospheric warming and retreat of ice shelves on the Antarctic Peninsula. Nature 379:328-331.

Wadhams, P. 1991. Atmosphere-ice-ocean interactions in the Antarctic. In C.M. Harris and B. Stonehouse (eds.). Antarctica and Global Climate Change. Belhaven Press. London.

Ward, C.G. 1995. Mapping ice front changes of Muller Ice Shelf, Antarctic Peninsula. Antarctic Science 7:197-198.

WMO. 1995a. Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 1994 Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project. Report No. 37.

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Wolff, E.W. 1990. Signals of atmospheric pollution in polar ice and snow. Antarctic Science 2(3):189-205.

Wolff, E.W. 1992. The influence of global and local atmospheric pollution on the chemistry of Antarctic snow and ice. Marine Pollution Bulletin 25(9-12):274.

Wolff, E.W. 1995. Environmental monitoring in Antarctica: atmospheric pollution. Unpublished paper presented at SCAR/COMNAP Antarctic Environmental Monitoring Workshops: Workshop 1-Prioritisation of impacts and the development of monitoring options. 17-20 October. Oslo.

Wolff, E.W., and E.D. Suttie. 1994. Antarctic snow record of southern hemisphere lead pollution. Geophysical Research Letters 21(9):781.

Wynn-Williams, D.D. 1994. Potential effects of UV radiation on Antarctic primary terrestrial colonizers: cyanobacteria, algae and cryptograms. In Weiler, C.S., and P.A. Penhale (eds.). Ultraviolet radiation in Antarctica: measurements and biological effects. Antarctic Research Series. American Geophysical Union. 62:243-257. Washington.

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