3.C.2.1 Aquaculture
Aquaculture Status of activity Socio-economic factors Environmental/biotic impacts Other problems Operational targets
Lagoon aquaculture Well developed in many countries for mussel, mullet culture Important local source of food, income and employment; especially for fishermen displaced by stock collapse Regulations governing production density must be introduced in relation to eutrophication caused by waste products/feed A high proportion of lagoons are suffering from pollution, and will need to be rehabilitated

Quality control measures must be introduced for testing possibility of contamination

Rehabilitation of lagoons will increase significantly potential earnings from the fishery and wildlife sectors. Candidate lagoons should be chosen in Black Sea countries for test application
Open Sea aquaculture Cage culture of Atlantic salmon and sea trout is occurring in Turkish waters This development logically evolved during a period of high availability of fish meal, which may be problematic in the future Probably impacts lower than in lagoons, but needs control. High summer temperatures may lead to die off of salmonids in summer: may be possibilities for other species such as turbot, where technology has been developed Engineering approaches needed to design of facilities surviving under different sea states

Access rights to facilities must be protected legally

Pilot scale applications of existing technologies will be useful. Economic analysis of feasibility with reduced local production of fish meal should be carried out first
Hatcheries and sea ranching Currently well developed in Russia, mainly for sturgeon species, with some experimental rearing of exotics such as haarder/sea bass/sea trout, where there have been attempts to establish viable populations Sturgeons are a major source of revenue in the northern basin. There has however been insufficient replacement of state control of illegal harvests: poaching needs to be severely controlled Hatcheries present potential problems of genetic contamination of wild stocks, and should not be promoted in preference to spawning stream rehabilitation Jurisdictional problems as to harvests of fish coming from hatchery or lagoon to Black Sea need to be addressed in relation to economic expenditures incurred

In the case of consideration of exotic strains of various species for sea ranching, the feasibility of production and release of sterile (e.g. hybrid) juveniles for subsequent recapture could be usefully investigated

International agreement of Black Sea countries will be needed to support rights to harvest hatchery produced fish in the sea
Shellfish culture Mussel and oyster culture has been developed: technological problems of application to open sea conditions have been solved Mussels are used for food/pharmaceuticals and poultry feeds. As such contribute to local economy and tourist industry Can play an important role in water depuration (suspended solids): could be used in lagoon depuration. However, quality control needs to be maintained against contamination by toxic man-made chemicals and toxic shellfish blooms. Densities must be regulated to avoid accumulation of anoxic conditions from pseudofaecal accumulation Consumer acceptance and markets for aquaculture products will have to be established in some countries Further exploration of marketing possibilities for consumption of mussels in Black Sea region

Pilot scale application and economic feasibility studies of suspended mussel or seaweed culture for treatment of eutrophic lagoons (for use as animal feeds or industrial use)

See also

3.C.2.1 Aquaculture
3.C.2.1 Trout shore-based aquaculture
2.C.2.1 Developing aquaculture and sustainable tourism (aquaculture)
3.C.1 Coastal zone management, planning and public participation