3.C.1.1.a Inadequate planning (general issues)
Sub-issue Characteristics Responsible Sector/Authority Information Gaps Remedial Actions Required Operational Targets
General Aspects of ICZM Lack of ICZM general strategy for the Black Sea Coastal Zone Ministries of Environment of the BS countries  
  • Development and approval of the Black Sea Action Plan - 1996
  • Development of ICZM regional and national strategies - 1997
  • Preparation of national ICZM laws
  • Development of land-use plans (LUP)
  • International coordination of the LUP laws, regulations and approaches
  • Introduction of program for international coordination in the field of land-use planning into the plan of the Krasnodar ICZM AC
  • Development of a coherent regional ICZM strategy and national ICZM strategies
Urban Development
  • level of urbanization
  • inadequate env. infrastructure (for all kinds of development)
  • urban transport
  • industrial zones
  • ports
  • Mostly middle towns under 1 m population
  • 27 m overall population in the CZ
  • Deficient WS&SS, WWTP and SWD
  • Air water and noise pollution, industrial pollution
  • Conflicts for municipal lands
Sectoral state agencies and local authorities
  • Uncertainty re. the trends for future population growth
  • Analyses of the env. impacts of industrial zones
  • Port management perspective plans
  • Improvement or new development of environmental infrastructure at the municipal level (sewage plant etc.)
  • Development of urban planning systems and laws in compliance with ICZM general objectives and international experience
  • Integration of Urban needs and requirements into proper national LUP and ICZM strategy
  • Securing adequate environmental infrastructure for all new development
  • International coordination of urban planning policies of the BS countries
  • Reduction of point sources of pollution
Industrial Development
  • Pollution-most important factor
  • Unemployment (4-17 %)
  • Negative impacts on other sectors-tourism, forestry, agriculture
  • Decline of industrial production
Sectoral state agencies and local authorities
  • Monitoring of intensive industrial development;
  • Analyses of the impacts on other sectors
New technology and restructuring process for the decrease of industrial pollution affecting the CZ: investment /demonstration projects in each of the BS countries
  • Integration of Industrial needs and requirements into proper national LUP and ICZM strategy
  • Reach sustainable industrial development based on ICZM general objectives - to year 1998
  • Plan future industrial development on the basis of the ICZM law and plan -year 2000
  • Develop LUP and zoning laws and regulations - year 2000
Recreational Development (see 2.C.2.2)
  • Air, water and noise pollution
  • Pressure on the natural environment
  • Iimpact on coastal erosion
  • Change in land-use
Sectoral state agencies and local authorities
  • Monitoring of tourism development
  • Enforcement of the construction regulations
  • Favoring the development of sustainable tourism practices within framework of ICZM strategies
  • Env. audit of existing tourism facilities
  • Integration of Tourism needs and requirements into proper national LUP and ICZM strategy
  • Development of a sustainable tourism industry in the BS coastal areas
Agricultural Development
  • Pollution of soils and waters
  • Loss of agr. lands for other uses
  • Inefficient planning of agr. Production
  • Lack of proper enforcement of env. and agr. laws
  • Problems with property rights
Sectoral state agencies and local authorities
  • Data for changes in use of agr. lands
  • Control of the production
  • Data on total pesticides and fertilizers used in agr. production and estimates of runoff
  • Protection of agr. lands against other destructive uses
  • introduction of modern environmentally sustainable technologies
  • Integration of Agricultural needs and requirements into proper national LUP and ICZM strategy
Land use
  • Lack of legal basis for LUP and zoning in all countries
  • Inefficient implementation and enforcement of existing laws
Sectoral state agencies and local authorities plus regional councils
  • Land-use norms, standards and approaches
  • Territorial dev. planning procedures in all the countries
  • Consultation process for review of national LUPs
  • Preparation of guidelines for land-use planning in the coastal zone as basis for future legislative efforts (norms and zoning classifications, etc.)
  • Recognizing the role of env. sensitive urban and land-sue plans as effective instrument of ICZM in the BS countries

See also

2.C.1 Improving planning in coastal areas, including urban and industrial zones
3.C.1 Coastal zone management, planning and public participation
3.C.1.1.b Inadequate planning (insufficient intersectoral coordination)
3.C.1.1.c Inadequate planning (coastal erosion and inappropriate erosion control)
3.C.1.1.d Inadequate planning (inefficient contingecy plans)