3.B.1.1.d Summary table by ecological category of resource (indicators of ecosystem health)
Resource category State of stocks Ecological/ environmental controls Fisheries management measures Operational targets
Red algae (Phyllophora) See 3.B.2.1.a   Suggest that areas of main Phyllophora beds be closed to dragged fishing gear disturbing the bottom and declared ecological sanctuaries to protect unique associated fauna A marine reserve should be agreed to by 2000 in the area described on the attached map, where no bottom fishing operations with dragged bottom gears such as trawls should be allowed. This area should be kept under continuous monitoring to assess state and extent of seaweed resources
Artificial reefs Maybe used to increase plant and animal diversity and production in shallow sandy areas Higher populations of mussels, fish and seaweeds may contribute to productivity of the region as well as oxygenation and detritus removal. Assign access rights to local communities Suggest coordinated national projects for constructing reefs in degraded nearshore areas. (Materials, design, location and cost of installation of reefs of at least 1000m2 in waters of each countries should be prepared ($30,000) - 1997-19978. The likely cost of implementation should be shared between country and international donor. Likely cost per reef of the order of 0.3-$2 million, depending on country- begin before 2000)
Venus clam Declining in many areas Indicator species of clean sandy bottom: very sensitive indicator of hypoxia of shallow shelf Suggest restrict harvesting method - no dredging Operational targets: enter harvesting recommendation into national legislation
Blue mussels Serious decline of formerly important biofilter Indicator of bottom hypoxia Suggest (hanging) aquaculture in shallow areas Designate areas for coastal aquaculture for the private sector, and promote aquaculture products in markets as substitute for fisheries on wild stocks (Plan for promotion of aquaculture products, common Black Sea marketing organization and promotion of consumer acceptance to be developed: $20,000) - 1997
Native gray/golden mullets Stocks depleted largely due to environmental deterioration Poor condition of many coastal lagoons restricts stock size.

Good indicator of healthy lagoon conditions/presence of oil and pesticides reduces range

Avoid directed commercial fishery Draw up plans by 1997 for ecological rehabilitation of coastal lagoons. Each country to suggest one candidate lagoon, for which rehabilitation plans based on pilot sampling will be developed by 1999 ($300,000). A cost sharing approach between donors and national governments will begin full scale implementation by 1999. Likely order of cost of dredging, clean up of incoming water, (biological and chemical/water treatment of the order of $1-5 million depending on size and criteria. Transboundary benefits will be reduced outflow of effluents and increased nursery grounds and production of coastal fish)

Start clean up implementation by 1999.

Aim to increase mullet stock size by 5 times 2005

Red mullet Very depleted Indicator of shallow shelf hypoxia Fishery moratorium: (by- catch only allowed) All parties to discuss trawling moratorium in red mullet grounds. (assistance to national survey to evaluate mullet distribution grounds and draw up closure plans, implementation: $120,000)
Rays and skates Depleted? Ditto Keep fishery to low levels  
Native salmon-trout Rare Good indicator of clean, unpolluted streams No commercial fishing A survey of spawning beds in native streams by 1998 should determine candidates for full restoration of spawning areas. Plans for restoration of stream quality should be drawn up and implemented by 2000. (The costings are similar to those for sturgeon, with which this could be combined)
Dolphins See 3.B.2.1.f      

See also

3.B.1.1.a Summary table by ecological category of resource (small pelagic fish)
3.B.1.1.b Summary table by ecological category of resource (demersal fish)
3.B.1.1.c Summary table by ecological category of resource (anadromus fish)
3.B.1.1.e Summary table by ecological category of resource (exploitable species)
3.B.1.1.f Summary table by ecological category of resource (seasonal migrants)
3.B.1 Fisheries issues: status of stocks and management of wild resources
3.B.2.1.d Loss or imminent loss of endangered species (fishes)