2.C.2.2 Developing aquaculture and sustainable tourism (development of sustainable tourism)
Sub-issues Stakeholders Uncertainties Proposed actions and costs Products and milestones
Difficulty of Access

General accessibility problems (international airports)

Difficult and cumbersome entry procedures (and documents)

Ministries of Tourism and Transportation Transport issues must be addressed by other sectors Identify and provide for implementation of regional/national actions for joint removal /easing of visa and customs barriers (study and regional meeting on frontier formalities, 1997) Cost estimate: $100,000 Access and paper procedures facilitated by year 1998

Air transport coordinated in the region. Airport facilities and services enhanced

Economic and political difficulties

Poor conditions of infrastructure

Poor investment climate

Unplanned private development

Privatization process: slow and incomplete

Decline in conditions of buildings/facilities

Security problems in some countries result in poor image of the whole Black Sea

Inadequate banking system for needs of foreign tourists

Several Sectoral Ministries and Tourism offices A number of issues are the result of national economic polices and few can be addressed by the BSAP Integrate tourism needs and requirements into development of national LUPs and ICZM strategies (see 2.C.1) Tourism issues integrated within ICZM strategies; zoning plans and building guidelines in place by year 2000
Proceed with pre-feasibility studies of selected facilities and encourage privatization and restructuring (possibly Investors’ Forum). Cost estimate: $400,000 Process of restructuring, privatization and foreign investment facilitated in the area of tourism
Environmental degradation

Environmental degradation of beaches, of protected areas and over concentration in limited number of areas (see also 2.A.2).

Problem with quality and supply of drinking water; inadequate sewage and treatment systems (see 2.A.2)

Ministries of Tourism, Env., and Health

Local authorities, private sector

  Facilitate the implementation of national enabling instruments:
- environmental indicators;
- environmental audit of tourism facilities;
- drafting of codes of conduct & practice and dissemination of results of above to public and operators.
Cost estimate: $150,000 per year
Operators, visitors and communities sensitized to the impacts of tourism on the environment. A Green Initiative set up in the Black Sea countries rewarding environmentally sensitive tourism facilities/resorts by year 2000
Upgrade drinking water quality; monitoring programme of beach water quality set up in key areas of the BS and dissemination of results to the public. Cost estimate: $100,000 per year Upgraded water supply and drinking water systems
Inefficient Management

Lack of training (employee skills, tourism management, sustainable practices, etc.)

Low level of service

Lack of Statistics, including parameters of environmental significance

Min. of Tourism, Statistics bureaus, operators Deficient and incompatible data on tourists arrivals in BS coasts Specialized training workshops (employee training, resort management, sustainability and environmental indicators, etc.) General skills of tourism employees and officials upgraded
Twinning arrangements with western tourism resorts for exchange of experience and practice. Cost estimate: $250,000 Established linkages between western and Black Sea municipalities
Poor Marketing

No or little marketing (regional & national)

Conventional and non-inovative product: Sea, sun & beach account for 60 to 65% of tourism

Poor linkage to overseas travel agents

Tourism operators, private sector, Min. of Tourism   Stimulation of ecotourism products (implementation of demonstration ecotourism projects in each country catering to the cruise market). Cost estimate: $400,000 Diversification of tourism product (ecotourism)

Recovery of historic demand markets (upgrading of facilities, marketing)

Legal and Institutional deficiencies

Lack of intraregional cooperation

Lack of tourism objectives

Unclear and uneasy property laws; lack of legal incentives (tax concessions, free transfer of capital, etc.) and legal instruments

Basic right of the public to access the beach

Min. of Tourism, tourism operators   A strategic regional study of tourism prospects and requirements in the Black Sea area (1997). Cost estimate: $50,000 Development of a Regional Tourism Strategic Approach.
A joint declaration Ministers of Tourism and Environment legitimizing the efforts for sustainable tourism development (regional Conference). Cost estimate: $50,000 Adoption of national tourism laws/strategies (when these do not exist) which clearly establish the duties and responsibilities of different bodies
Review existing national legislation, in particular re. tourism development and EIA for new projects (zoning, building standards, etc.) and submit proposals. Cost estimate: $100,000 Property laws and legal instruments as incentive to sustainable tourism development designed and/or improved in all Black Sea countries
Establishment of an industry Association of tourism operators (for joint marketing efforts and cooperation) An active tourism operators association working towards promotion of the Black Sea as a whole and institution building of the industry

See also

2.C.1 Improving planning in coastal areas, including urban and industrial zones
2.C.2.1 Developing aquaculture and sustainable tourism (aquaculture)
3.C Sustainable Human Development