2.B.2 Loss or imminent loss of endangered species in the Black Sea and its wetlands
Problem Stakeholders Uncertainties Proposed actions and costs Products and milestones
Bottom plant communities

Phyllophora and Cystoseira barbata threatened by:
- eutrophication from point and non point sources;
- pollution;
- increased turbidity.

Ministry of Environmental Protection of Ukraine

Ministry of Fisheries of Ukraine

Government research institutions

Coastal Guard

No quantitative data on standing crop in 1990s

Insufficient information on culturing techniques

In the short term (2 years):
- create marine protected areas (see 3.B.2.1);
- monitoring $100,000 per year;
- enforcement of protection measures (use of boats, running costs and salaries of rangers - $100,000);
- reduce nutrient inputs (see 2.A.4.1)

Medium term (by the year 2005):
development of ex situ culturing techniques - $50.000 (see 3.B.2.1).

Maintain or restore viable populations of about 60 species including fish

Create sustainable use of the presently declining economic resource (agar production and sodium alginate production

Improve ecological conditions of the central NWS

Commercial and/or endemic animals

Molluscs, bottom crustaceans and fish are mainly threatened by:
- hypoxia caused by eutrophication;
- turbidity;
- overharvesting;
- destruction of breeding grounds.

Ministries of Fisheries and Ministries of Environment of all Black Sea countries Lack of quantitative surveys Reduce eutrophication (see 2.A.4.1)

Prohibit dragging and trawling

Regulate fishing (see 2.B.1)

Moratorium on harvesting

Full protection in breading seasons

Stimulate aquaculture (see 2.C.2.1)

Reduce turbidity by biofiltration

Restore endemic population

Reduce microbial pollution

Restore an economic and recreational resources

Wetlands communities (see also section B.3)

Maine threats are:
- draining of wetlands;
- cultural eutrophication and pollution mainly from non point sources;
- overfishing;
- overhunting.

Ministries of Fisheries and Ministries of Environment of all Black Sea countries   Creation of new protected areas (see 2.B.3) Maintain valuable communities and ecosystem services
Marine mammals
Dolphins (endemic subspecies), monk seal

Maine threats are:
- biomagnification of various pollutants;
- accidental or illegal killing as by-catch in fisheries;
- lack of reproduction in coastal areas.

Ministries of Environment and Ministries of Fisheries of all Black Sea countries   Reduce pollution (see 2.A.4.1)

Enforce ban on hunting

Develop a regional rehabilitation center (see 2.B.3) 300,000 ECU

Provide sufficient sanctuary area , estimated at no less than $50,000 by country per year

Partial recovery of declining population by 2005-2010 AD
Lack of common Regional methodology in protection of endangered and rare species Ministry of Environmental Protection of Ukraine

Government research institutions

Academies of Sciences

  Preparation of the regional Black Sea Red Data Book (cost estimated as $ 25,000) Black Sea Red Data Book published by end 1998

See also

2.B.2 Black Sea wetlands
2.B.1 Commercially exploited species
2.B.3 Protection of habitats and landscape
2.B.3 The Black Sea coast
3.B.2 Protection of Endangered Species and their Habitats