2.A.2 Monitoring the levels and effects of pollutants for compliance and for long-term trends, data exchange
Problem Stakeholders Uncertainties Proposed actions and costs Products and milestones
The Pilot Monitoring programmes organized through BSEP have revealed that some of the chemical contaminants listed in the Black List of the Bucharest Convention are not present in concentrations throughout the Black Sea which are likely to cause significant biological effects (see table 2.A.1). The contaminants of region-wide concern include nutrients and petroleum hydrocarbons. Significant levels of contaminants such as synthetic organic compounds and trace metals appear to be restricted to coastal hot-spots. Radionuclides, though not a significant hazard, require further evaluation. Ministries of Environmental Protection,

Local authorities

Private sector

Government research institutions

The coverage of the Pilot Studies was limited to three representative areas of the Black Sea. More information is needed on the extent of coastal “hot spots”. The monitoring, if restricted to the “Black List” substances may not account for the risk due to other harmful substances. For this purpose, it would be imperative to measure the biological effects of pollution. Establishment of a Black Sea Monitoring system based upon the integration of obligatory national monitoring programmes with an independent quality assurance system based upon the Istanbul Commission (Panel on Pollution Assessment, Odessa Activity Centre). Operational cost of the international component calculated as $200,000 p.a. The monitoring system will be based on a combination of biological effects measurements and measurements of key contaminants (see 2.A.1). The training programme for the application of these techniques will require financial support of $500,000 for the period 1996-2001.

Publication of a Black Sea Pollution Assessment every five years from 1996. Preparation and publication cost $100,000.

A full Black Sea Monitoring Programme in compliance with the Bucharest Convention and integrating data of appropriate defined quality by 1999.

A regular Black Sea Pollution Assessment based upon measurements of contaminants, their sources and their biological effects.

Pilot studies completed by WHO within the BSEP have shown a relatively large percentage of samples indicating unacceptable quality of Black Sea bathing water. Data on beach and bathing water quality is rarely revealed to the public and the methodological approaches are not harmonized. There are confirmed reports of cholera and frequent beach closures in some countries. Ministries of Health

Ministries of Environment

Local authorities

The Public in general

The degree of contamination cannot be compared from country to country because of the inadequate harmonization of measurement techniques. The epidemiological relationship between bathing water contamination and public health has not been firmly established. Data from some countries has not been made freely available. The implementation of a uniform assay technique for bathing water quality with a common quality assurance support mechanism. Cost for the QA system, $100,000 per year.

An agreement between all sectors to provide public access to the data on beach quality.

The establishment of a colour coding system for beach quality maps similar to that applied in the EU. Cost $50,000 per year.

A full cost-benefit analysis should be conducted for providing all towns with secondary sewage treatment. The analysis should commence as soon as possible with a view to significantly reducing sewage inputs by 2006 (see also 2.A.3).

Formal agreement on the creation of a region-wide network using a common methodology and granting access rights to the data (Dec.1996).

Establishment of a QA system based in the Istanbul Commission Panel on Pollution Control (Dec. 1996).

Publication of colour coded beach maps (Jan 1998).

Research on processes of pollutant transfer, recycling, biological effects and control measures remains poorly coordinated throughout the region. Governments and government institutions

Academies of Science

International Agencies


Invited outside scientists/

Major uncertainties (reflected in the tables of this TDA) require active research programmes. These cannot be conducted without coordinated national/
international support.
To recognize the role of research and regional research institutions in the Black Sea Strategic Action Plan.

To utilize existing coordinating mechanisms to facilitate information exchange on research programmes.

To encourage these bodies to exchange information on research programmes using the Istanbul Commission as a clearing house.

To encourage bi-annual multi-disciplinary research conferences on the Black Sea.

The cost of the overall research effort on transboundary issues is likely to be $1-2 Million per year for one decade).

Acceptance by the Istanbul Commission of its role as a clearing-house (Dec. 1996).

First bi-annual research conference (June 1998).

BSEP information systems need to be maintained and, in some cases, expanded (see 3.A.2.2). Without proper maintenance, the current system will lose its usefulness. The existing GIS should be made available to the public/educational organizations. Current BSEP PCU

Istanbul Commission

All institutions involved in implementing the Action Plan and the Bucharest Convention

Timetable for availability of full Internet connections to all Black Sea countries. Development of a regional Internet node for the Black Sea Environment at the Istanbul Commission (capital cost $70,000, running cost $50,000 p.a.). See 3.A.2.2 for contents).

To urgently improve the Internet and e-mail connections with Ministries of the Environment ($60,000).

To encourage the Istanbul Commission and donors to support the post of information system manager. The assigned tasks of the Manager would include regularly updating the Black Sea Information System, Black Sea Web site and ensuring the proper management of the Commission’s data base ($80,000 p.a., including running costs).

To create a user-friendly Black Sea CD ROM multimedia information package based upon the existing GIS system ($150,000 for full development and pilot production).

A fully operating and properly maintained information system based upon the BSEP Internet node by January 1997.

All Ministries of the Environment connected to Internet by January 1997.

BSEP Information System Manager in functions by January 1997.

BS GIS in CD ROM information package by June 1997.

See also

2.A.1 Assessment of the discharge of chemical and micro-biological contaminants to coastal and marine areas
2.A.3 Control of pollution hot spots in the Black Sea coastal region
3.A.2.2 Insufficient information flow and data exchange
3.A.2 Pollution Surveys