2.A.1 Assessment of the discharge of chemical and micro-biological contaminants to coastal and marine areas
Problem Stakeholders Uncertainties Proposed actions and costs Products and milestones
The first assessment, conducted by the BSEP using the WHO Rapid Assessment technique, has revealed that some point source discharges and some of the national and international riverine inputs are quite significant and should be reduced if the marine environmental quality of the Black sea is to be improved. The data for the relative amounts of inputs of Total Suspended Solids, Biological Oxygen Demand, Total Nitrogen and Phosphorus and oil and its related products from each of these sources on a country-by-country basis can be found on 3.A.1 and the figures therein. Attention is drawn to the very large percentage of nutrient discharges which originate from the Danube River. Ministries of the Environment.

Regulatory bodies

Municipalities

Private and State Industry

Istanbul Commission

Other river commissions (Danube, Dnieper, etc.)

Donors and investors

GEF Partners and other relevant international agencies

The information on inputs (see 3.A.1 is a combination of estimates of possible discharges of contaminants using the WHO Rapid assessment guidelines for the case of domestic and industrial sources, and calculated inputs from measurements in rivers. Although both types of data are subject to error, particularly the estimates using the WHO guidelines, they are sufficient to allow relative comparisons to be made for each type of input and between each type of input. The tables should form one of the key starting points for a programme of pollution reduction (see 2.A.3).

It is clear that future assessments should be made and supported by the free exchange of actual discharge measurements. The first of these assessments should be completed in June 2000 and the exercise should be repeated every five years. The cost of the exercise and the necessary QA component is estimated as $300,000.

Considerable efforts will be required to negotiate reductions in inputs from international rivers, particularly the Danube. The current reductions in nutrient load proposed in the Danube Action Plan (maintenance of loads at the 1995 level) are clearly insufficient and a progressive series of stepwise reductions should be negotiated until agreed water quality objectives are met. A Basin Wide Strategy should be negotiated to provide the framework for such reductions (cost of consultations and negotiations estimated as $250,0000).

Second input assessment, June 2000, new assessment every five years.

Negotiations on Basin-Wide Strategy to be completed by June 1997.

Quality objectives to be set as per 2.A.4.1.

First input reduction agreement for international rivers to be negotiated by December 1997. Subsequent negotiations every five years.

Inputs of microbiological pollutants are not possible to assess by the WHO Rapid Assessment Procedure. Large BOD inputs (see above) suggest that sewage pollution is a major problem in the region. Solid municipal waste disposal to the sea also represents a problem with transboundary dimensions. See 2.A.2 See 2.A.2 Control of sewage pollution should be given a high priority throughout the region. Specific actions are proposed in 2.A.2 and 2.A.3.

A total ban on the disposal of municipal solid waste to the Black Sea should be imposed (cost to be covered by national/ODA funds)

See 2.A.2 and 2.A.3.

Ban on disposal of municipal solid waste to the Black Sea by December 1997.


See also

2.A.2 Monitoring the levels and effects of pollutants for compliance and for long-term trends, data exchange
2.A.3 Control of pollution hot spots in the Black Sea coastal region
2.A.4.1 Reduction and regulation of operational discharges (point sources)
3.A.1 Pollutant Loads