Smirnoviella reducta (Monchenko, 1977)

Smirnoviella reducta imageSynonyms: None.

Common names: None.

Order (Scientific): CYCLOPOIDA.


Taxonomic descriptions: As a type of species of the genus it exhibits very modified conditions not known in the other Cyclopidae for the structure of the maxilla, maxilliped, etc. The first one is characterized by the prehensile type with only 1 apical and subapical setae or spine on the distal joint and without the distal endit of the sympod with its armature; the second one is strongly reduced to only one small joint with 2 weakly developed setae (in other general minimal setae). Total female length 617-688 mcm.

Smirnoviella reducta arealIUCN Status:
    World level:
    Black Sea Regional level: EN
    Subregion level: EN (Ukrainian sector)

Distribution: The central part of the Dniester river liman of the Black Sea. Endemic of this river liman. All 3 congeners are known only in the Caspian Sea (Monchenko, 1982). This genus relation, the actual area of distribution and peculiarities of its halopathy give a reason to believe that S. reducta belongs to the Ponto-Caspian zoogeographic complex and arose in one of the basins that preceded the Black Sea.

Habitats type, Critical habitats, Limiting factors: A meiobentic bottom-dwelling species inhabiting the mud sands at different depths of the river liman. Found at the salinity 0.56-1.51 ppt.

Biology: A polycyclic development during the warm season of the year. The limiting factors: a strong seasonal salinity oscillations and a very narrow area of distribution.

Population trends: Decline in population numbers during the last 10-12 years of up to 50-60%.

Threats: Pollution of the river liman and eutrophication causing hypoxia in the bottom layer of water.

Conservation measures taken: None.

Conservation measures proposed: Entry in Black Sea Red Data Book. Reduction of pollution in the Dniestr basin .


  1. Monchenko, V.I., 1977. Smirnoviella reducta gen. et sp. n. (Crutasera, Copepoda) from Dniester river liman (Black Sea basin). Zool. Zhurn., v.56, N 9: 1402-1406 (in Russian with English Abstract).
  2. Monchenko, V.I., 1982. The genus Smirnoviella (Crutasera, Cyclopidae) in the Caspian Sea with the description of a new species. Vestnik Zool., v.16, N 3: 12-15 (in Russian with English Abstract).

Compiled by: V.Monchenko.