Plegadis falcinellus Linnaeus, 1766

Plegadis falcinellus imageSynonyms: Tantalus falcinellus Linnaeus, 1766

Common names: Bulg: Blestyach ibis; Engl: Glossy ibis; Rom: Tiganus; Russ: Karavayka; Turk: Celtikci; Ukr: Korovayka



Taxonomic descriptions: 1500-2000 pairs.

Plegadis falcinellus arealIUCN Status:
    World level: LR
    Black Sea Regional level: LR
    Subregion level: LR


Habitats type, Critical habitats, Limiting factors: Dense reed-beds in brackish and fresh water-bodies, arboreal or bush vegetation of flood-plains. Breeding and feeding habitats are alike, but it most frequently forages on fresh or freshened shallow waters, rice fields. Major limiting factors include disturbance in the colonies, water pollution and a decrease in habitat feeding capacity.

Biology: Arrival at the end of March - beginning of April. The terms of egg-laying vary annually and topographically within the colony, but most are laid between 20.04 and 26.05. Separate sub-colonies of Glossy Ibis are located in mixed colonies of other herons. Nesting density is high. Usually the nests take the lowest level (up to 0.4 m over the water). When nesting on bushes and trees, the height may be more variable, but these habitats do not play a key role in the region. Clutch size 2-7, normally 4-5 eggs. After fledging juveniles move in various directions. Sometimes birds stay in the breeding area till late September. Departure to wintering grounds is in October.

Population trends:

Threats: Water pollution of shallow bays degrading the reed-beds, melioration of downstream riverine areas, human disturbance.

Conservation measures taken: Colonies of Plegadis falcinellus are protected in the Danube Delta.

Conservation measures proposed: Obligatory protection of all breeding colonies.


  1. Smogorzhevsk'kyi L.O. Divers, Grebes, Shearwaters, Cormorants, Shags, Egrets, Herons, Flamingoes. Fauna of Ukraine. Volume V, issue 1. Birds. AN UkrSSR.- Kiev.:1979 432 p. (in Russian).
  2. Kostin Y.V. Birds of the Crimea.- M., 1983.- 241 p (in Russian).
  3. Chervona Knyga Ukrayiny (Red Data Book of Ukraine). Kijiv: Ukrajinska enciklopediya Publ., 1994. p. 310 (in Ukrainian).

Compiled by: V.Siokhin