Parapholis incurva (Linnaeus) C.E.Hubbard, 1946

Parapholis incurva imageSynonyms: Lepidurus incurvus (L.) Janch. nom. invalid., Lepturus incurvus (L.) Druce, Pholiurus incurvus (L.) Schinz et Thell

Common names: Engl: Curved parapholis; Bulg: Izvit foliurus; Russ: Parafolis sognuty; Ukr: Parafolis zignuty



Taxonomic descriptions: It is an annual grass up to 5-25 cm in height, with curved brittle spike; the spikelets are solitary, one-flowered, with two glumes as long as the lemma; the lemma has no awn.

Parapholis incurva arealIUCN Status:
††† World level: NE
††† Black Sea Regional level: EN
††† Subregion level: CR in Ukraine


Habitats type, Critical habitats, Limiting factors: Coastal slopes, sands and shingles. Critical habitats: the Crimea (Alupka, Yalta region, Salgir river), Georgia (Adzharia), Turkey, Bulgaria (Tolbukhin and Burgas districts). Limiting factors: the low level of competitive ability.

Biology: Bloom - from May to June; fruitage - from June to July. Root system - short fibrous. Only seed propagation. Psammophyte, xeromesophyte, glyco-halophyte.

Population trends: Declining in abundance.

Threats: Lack of non-modified sites along the coast that is due to the development of the coast into a human populated zone.

Conservation measures taken: The species is listed in the Red Data Book of Bulgaria.

Conservation measures proposed: The species needs to be monitored in the region; new reservations are desirable.


  1. Vulff, E.W., 1951. Flora Kryma. Tom 1, N4. (Flora of the Crimea. Vol.1, N4). Moscow: Izdatel'stvo sel'skokhozyaystvennoy literatury, 170 pp., (in Russian).
  2. Davis P.H. 1965-1985. Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands. Vols.1-9. - Edinburgh at the University Press.
  3. Rubtsov, N.I. (ed.), 1972. Opredelitelí vysshikh rasteniy Kryma. (Identification Book of the Crimean Higher Plants). Leningrad: Nauka, 550 pp., (in Russian).
  4. Luks, Y.A., Privalova, L.A., and Kryukova, I.V., 1976. Katalog redkikh, ischezayushchikh i unichtozhaemykh rasteniy flory Kryma, rekomenduyemykh dlya zapovednoy okhrany. 1976. (Catalogue of Rare, Disappearing and Exterminative Crimean Flora Plants Recommended for Protection). Yalta: GNBS, 24 pp., (in Russian).
  5. Tzvelyov N.N., 1976. Zlaki SSSR. (Cereals of the USSR). Leningrad: Nauka, 788 pp., (in Russian).
  6. Velchev, V. (ed.), 1984. Chervena kniga na NR Bulgaria. Tom 1. Rasteniya. (The Red Data Book of Bulgaria. Vol. 1. Plants). Sofia: Izdatelstvo na Bulgarskata Akademia na naukite, 448 pp., (in Bulgarian).
  7. Golubev, V.N., 1996. Biologicheskaya flora Kryma. (Biological Flora of the Crimea). Yalta: GNBS, 86 pp., (in Russian).

Compiled by: A.Yena