Iphigenella andrussovi (Sars, 1896)

Iphigenella andrussovi image Synonyms: Gammarus andrussovi Sars 1896, Martinov 1924, Carausu 1943.

Common names: Bulg: Mamarets; Russ: Bokoplav.

Order(Scientific): AMPHIPODA.

Family(Scientific): GAMMARIDAE.

Taxonomic descriptions: One of the 3 species of the endemic Black-Caspian Seas genus. Propoduses of I-V pereiopods are no half nipping claw shaped; the claw is longer than the width; the third epimeral plate with straight angle on lower back edge.

Iphigenella andrussovi arealIUCN Status:
    World level: LR (Endemic of the Azov-Black Sea and Caspian basins)
    Black Sea Regional level: LR
    Subregion level: LR (Ukrainian sector)

Distribution: Found in the lower reaches of the Danube including limans of the Dniestr, Dniepr and South Bug. Acclimatized in Kakhovka water reservoir and water bodies of the Ingulets river irrigation system. An isolated population of the species lives in the central part of the Caspian Sea on the latitude of Krasnovodsk (Turkmenistan).

Habitats type, Critical habitats, Limiting factors: : Freshwater and brackish parts of limans and lower reaches of rivers; prefers biotopes of sandy, silty-sandy and sandy-shelly sediments; encountered at depths up to 5 m.

Biology: Eurythermic species. Length of female 4-5 mm, male - 4-6 mm.

Population trends: Low abundance (1-3 ind/m2).

Threats: Pollution of water bodies.

Conservation measures taken: Acclimatized in the Kakhovka water reservoir and Ingulets irrigation system. Included in the Red Data Books of Ukraine and the Black Sea.

Conservation measures proposed: Studies of biological peculiarities of the species. Protection of characteristic habitats. Reduction in the pollution of rivers' lower reaches and limans.


  1. Birstein, J., Vinogradova, A. Kondakova, M. Kun, V. Astahova, N. Romanova 1968. Atlass of invertebrate fauna of Caspian Sea.
  2. Carausu, S. 1943. Amphipodes de Roumanie. I. Gammarides de types caspien. Bull. Institute de cercet. Pisc. Al Romanei.
  3. Carausu, S., E. Dobreanu, C. Manolache, 1955. Amphipoda forme solmastre si de apadulce. Fauna R.P.R. vol. IV. Fasc. 4.
  4. Kaneva-Abadjieva, V. 1972. A Contribution to the Study of the Amphipodus Fauna in the Black-Sea-Coast Lakes and River Mouths (in Bulgarian). Bulletin de l’Institut de Zoologie et Musé e, vol. XXXV, pp. 164-168.
  5. Morduhaj-Boltovskoj, F. 1969. Guide book to the fauna of the Black Sea and Azov Sea. Crustacea, Amphipoda.
  6. Valkanov, A. 1957. Katalog unserer Schwarzmeerfauna. Arbeiten aus der Biologischen Meeresstation in Varna Bulgarien. Bd. XIX.
  7. Polischuk, V.V., 1994. Iphigenella andrussowi. Chervona Knyga Ukrayiny (Red Data Book of Ukraine). Kijiv: Ukrajinska enciklopediya Publ., p. 47 (in Ukrainian)
  8. Opredelitel fauny Chernogo i Azovskogo morey (Key of Black Sea and Sea of Azov fauna). Kiev, Naukova dumka Publ., v. 2, 536 pp. (in Russian).

Compiled by: S.Andreev, B.Alexandrov.