Euphorbia paralias Linnaeus, 1753

Euphorbia paralias imageSynonyms: Tithymalus paralias (L.) J. Hill, 1768

Common names: Engl: Sea spurge; Bulg: Primorska mlechka; Russ: Molochay pribrezhny; Turk: Sutlegen; Ukr: Molochay pryberezhny



Taxonomic descriptions: It is a dwarf semishrub up to 60 cm, tall, glabrous, with numerous thick upright densely leaved stems; leaves are setiform, 10-30 mm long, 1-6 mm in width; inflorescence of 3-5 branches; bracts are ovate, cyathium is small, wide; seeds are wrinkled.

Euphorbia paralias arealIUCN Status:
††† World level: NE
††† Black Sea Regional level: EN
††† Subregion level: EN


Habitats type, Critical habitats, Limiting factors: Coastal sands. Critical habitats: coasts of the Crimea (Sevastopol, Laspi, Alushta, Karadag) and Caucasus (southernwards from Novorossiysk). Limiting factors: unknown; probably, the low level of its competition ability in coastal plant communities.

Biology: Bloom - from June to September, fruitage - from July to October. Successful seed propagation. Deep tap root system, psammophyte, mesoxerophyte, halophyte.

Population trends: Declining in abundance.

Threats: Lack of non-modified sites along the coast that is due to the development of the coast into resort zone.

Conservation measures taken: The species is protected in the Karadag natural reserve (the Crimea, Ukraine), listed in the Red Data Book of Bulgaria.

Conservation measures proposed: Establishment of new reserves in Bulgaria, Turkey, Georgia.


  1. Vulff, E.W., 1953. Flora Kryma. Tom 2, N3. (Flora of the Crimea. Vol. 2, N3). Moscow: Sovetskaya nauka, 220 pp., (in Russian).
  2. Davis P.H. 1965-1985. Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands. Vols.1-9. - Edinburgh at the University Press.
  3. Rubtsov, N.I. (ed.), 1972. Opredelitelí vysshikh rasteniy Kryma. (Identification Book of the Crimean Higher Plants). Leningrad: Nauka, 550 pp., (in Russian).
  4. Luks, Y.A., Privalova, L.A., and Kryukova, I.V., 1976. Katalog redkikh, ischezayushchikh i unichtozhaemykh rasteniy flory Kryma, rekomenduyemykh dlya zapovednoy okhrany. 1976. (Catalogue of Rare, Disappearing and Exterminative Crimean Flora Plants Recommended for Protection). Yalta: GNBS, 24 pp., (in Russian).
  5. Velchev, V. (ed.), 1984. Chervena kniga na NR Bulgaria. Tom 1. Rasteniya. (The Red Data Book of Bulgaria. Vol. 1. Plants). Sofia: Izdatelstvo na Bulgarskata Akademia na naukite, 448 pp., (in Bulgarian).
  6. Golubev, V.N., 1996. Biologicheskaya flora Kryma. (Biological Flora of the Crimea). Yalta: GNBS, 86 pp., (in Russian).
  7. Tzvelyov N.N.(ed.), 1996. Flora vostochnoy Yevropy. Tom 9 (Flora of the East Europe. Vol.9). Sankt-Peterburg: Mir i Sem'ya-95, 455 pp., (in Russian).

Compiled by: A.Yena