Ephedra distachya (Linnaeus, 1753)

Ephedra distachya imageSynonyms: None.

Common names: Engl: Great shrubby, Horse tail; Russ: Efedra dvukhkoloskovaya; Turk: Deniz usumu; Ukr: Efedra dvykhkoloskova.

Order (Scientific): EPHEDRALES.

Family (Scientific): EPHEDRACEAE.

Taxonomic descriptions: Very branching, evergreen small shrub with lying or straight-boled stem 10-50 cm in height. Leaves are small pelliculate. Dioecious plants with unisexual strobils. Cone-berries with red juicy integuments.

Ephedra distachya arealIUCN Status:
    World level:
    Black Sea Regional level:
    Subregion level: EN (Ukraine)


Habitats type, Critical habitats, Limiting factors: Mediterranean and West-Siberian species. It grows on stony areas and coastal sands.

Biology: Flowering during V-VI. Fruit-bearing - from VII. Reproducing by seeds and vegetatively.

Population trends: Populations are decreasing because of their medical value.

Threats: Recreation, buildings on the seaside.

Conservation measures taken: No special protection.

Conservation measures proposed: To organize protected territories in places where it occurs.


  1. Rare and vanishing plants of the USSR/Ed. by Ac.A.Takhtajan. - Leningrad, 1981. - 264 p.

Compiled by: S.Dyatlov, T.Vasilieva.