Diplodus annularis Linnaeus, 1758
Synonyms: Sparus annularis Linnaeus, 1758; Diplodus annularis Rafinesques, 1810; Sargus annularis Valenciennes, 1830; Diplodus annularis Fawler, 1964; Diplodus annularis Cadenot, 1964
Common names: Engl: Annular seabream; Bulg: Morskiy karas; Rom: Sparos; Russ: Morskoy karas'; Turk: Ispari
Taxonomic descriptions: Body oval, moderately elongate, rather deep; dorsal profile of the head curved; eyes moderately developed, their diameter about 11 times the preorbital length; jaws armed in front with 8 incisors (flattened, cutting teeth) followed by 3 raws of molars (rounded teeth) in the upper jaw and 2 raws in the lower jaw. Back and sides grey, belly silvery; a broad black cross band on the caudal peduncle, between the caudal and the dorsal fins, and 7 to 8 less distinct cross bars on the back and sidewise; pelvic fins yellow. Scales small; dorsal fin high; pectoral fins extended to the level of the vent. Size: Maximum: 40 cm; common: about 15 to 25 cm.
Black Sea Regional level:
Subregion level: VU
Habitats type, Critical habitats, Limiting factors: Shallow zones of the continental shelf, on muddy-sand bottoms and on vegetated bottoms close to the shore, as well as in deeper waters, down to a depth of about 50 m , but is most common between 5 and 20 m. Often enters saline littoral lagoons. Common in the Mediterranean Sea, the eastern Atlantic coast along the South African coasts of the Indian Ocean. Increasing pollution in coastal zones; hypoxia.
Biology: Feeds on crustaceans, molluscs and fishes. Spawning period July-September; sexual maturity at 1 year old; small pelagic eggs; considerable hermaphroditness.
Population trends: More frequent in the past and rare at present; only incidentally in catches on the Romanian littoral, from Portita to Mangalia, and there are not separate statistics for this species. Generally caught with trammel nets, beach seines and floating longlines, also with bottom trawls.
Threats: Pollution, hypoxia.
Conservation measures taken:
Conservation measures proposed: Mitigation of coastal zones pollution.
Compiled by: A.Petranu