Crambe mitridatis Juzepczuk, 1951

Crambe mitridatis imageSynonyms: Crambe koktebelica var. mitridatis Kotov, Crambe orientalis auct

Common names: Engl: Mithridates crambe, Mithridates colewort; Bulg: Divo zele (mitridatis); Rom: Holodean (mitridatis), Tirtan (mitridatis); Russ: Katran mitridatskiy; Ukr: Katran mitridats'ky



Taxonomic descriptions: It is a tall (1.5-2.0 m), annual or biennial plant with numerous thin branches. The base leaves are long, lyre-like, parted (solid ones are more rare), bare on the top , have long rare hairs on the veins on the bottom . The flowers are white, petals yellowing towards the base. The foetus is a nut-like podlet. Its base is short, empty; the top is a large sphere, one-seed. The close endemic species C. mitridatis was often described as a taxonomic variety of C. koktebelica because of their non-sufficient differences.

Crambe mitridatis arealIUCN Status:
††† World level: NE
††† Black Sea Regional level: CR
††† Subregion level: CR


Habitats type, Critical habitats, Limiting factors: Sand and shingle coast, beaches, cavities and cracks in coastal rocks. Critical habitats: it was considered as a close endem of Opuk mountain (Kerch peninsula in the Crimea) for a long time; in recent years data shows it has spread to the north of Kerch peninsula (Zolotoye, Bagerovo) and on Tarkhankut peninsula (Jangulí coast). Limiting factors: endemism, small natural population size, phytophagans nutrition, elimination during storms.

Biology: The flowering and fruit-bearing are in June-September. Reproduction - by seeds; a low temperature is necessary for germination ability.

Population trends: The population is not numerous. Its trends are not quite clear.

Threats: Accidental extermination by local inhabitants because the plant is edible.

Conservation measures taken: The species is listed in the Red Data Book of Ukraine and conserved in reservation sites at Kazantip Cape and Opuk mountain (Kerch peninsula of the Crimea).

Conservation measures proposed: Population state monitoring; cultivation and reintroduction measures; creation of Kerch and Tarkhankut natural reservations including protected areas on Opuk mountain and Kazantip Cape.


  1. Rubtsov, N.I. (ed.), 1972. Opredelitel' vysshikh rasteniy Kryma. (Identification Book of the Crimean Higher Plants). Leningrad: Nauka, 550 pp., (in Russian).
  2. Luks, Y.A., Privalova, L.A., and Kryukova, I.V., 1976. Katalog redkikh, ischezayushchikh i unichtozhaemykh rasteniy flory Kryma, rekomenduyemykh dlya zapovednoy okhrany. 1976. (Catalogue of Rare, Disappearing and Exterminative Crimean Flora Plants Recommended for Protection). Yalta: GNBS, 24 pp., (in Russian).
  3. Kryukova , I.V., Luks, Yu.A., Privalova, L.A., et al., 1988. Redkiye rasteniya i zhivotnyye Kryma. (Rare Plants and Animals of the Crimea). Simferopol: Tavria, 176 pp., (in Russian).
  4. Novosad, V.V., 1992. Flora Kerchensko-Tamanskogo Regiona. (The Flora of the Kerch-Taman Region). Kiev: Naukova Dumka, 277 pp., (in Russian).
  5. Golubev, V.N., 1996. Biologicheskaya flora Kryma. (Biological Flora of the Crimea). Yalta: GNBS, 86 pp., (in Russian).
  6. Shelyag-Sosonko, Yu.R. (ed.), 1996. Chervona Knyga Ukrayiny. (The Red Data Book of Ukraine). Kyiv: Ukrayins'ka Entzyklopediya, 608 pp., (in Ukrainian).

Compiled by: L.Vakhrusheva