Water Balance of the Black Sea (3)
  (d) Water exchange through the Bosphorus and the Kerch Straits
  The volume of water flowing into the Black Sea through the Bosphorus has been estimated as between 123 km3/year (Serpoianu, 1973) and 312 km3/year (Unluata et al., 1990). Estimates for the Bosphorus outflow range from 227 km3/year (Reshetnikov, 1992) to 612 km3/year (Unluata. U. et al., 1990). But all authorities agree that the outflow through the Bosphorus is twice as large as the inflow.
  There have been attempts to estimate fluctuations in the Bosphorus outflow during the year. Reshetnikov (1992) found that the seasonal flows are irregular, with levels peaking (50-60 km3) in April-June and falling to their lowest level in September-December (7 - 16 km3)
  The inflow through the Kerch Strait ranges between 22 km3/year (Reshetnikov, 1992) and 95 km3/year (Leonov, 1960), while the outflow ranges between 29 km3/year (Pora and Oros, 1974) and 70 km3/year (Leonov, 1960).
  (e) Fresh water balance
  For many years the average annual fresh water balance has been positive at 180 km3, ranging from 441 km3 in 1980 to -3.7 km3 in 1950. The values of the components of the fresh water balance have risen during the period under review. There are also seasonal fluctuations, with values peaking in spring and recording their lowest levels during summer. The balance of fresh water in the Black Sea is usually negative in the period from July to October. In some years the balance was also negative in January, June, November, and December. A positive balance of fresh water occurs in the February-May period (Simonov and Altman, 1991). The considerable annual and seasonal fluctuations in the Black Sea fresh water balance are mainly caused by variations in river discharges. Evaporation is a major influence only in the summer.
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