The morphometry of the Black Sea (3)
  The vast, aggraded Kolkhida Lowland, which forms part of the Meso-Cenozoic depression, is adjacent to the sea between the estuaries of the Kodori river and the Kobuleti river. The large Lake Paleostomi, which was once a sea bay, is located close to the shore to the south of the Rioni river estuary. To the south of the Kobuleti river the shoreline once again becomes mountainous, with ridges in the vicinity of Batumi exceeding 1,500 m.
  The southern shore is also mountainous. Meso-Cenozoic folded offshoots of the Pontic Mountains come close to the sea, reaching their highest elevation south and south-west of Batumi. Further to the west they become lower and as they near the Bosphorus decline to less than 450 m. The southern shoreline is precipitous along its entire length. In some places the shoreline slopes towards the sea in terraces and there are low sandy areas with cliffs protruding from the shore.
  The shoreline to the west of the Bosphorus is relatively low. To the west of Cape Kaliakra, Mesozoic folded formations of the Balkan Mountains come close to the sea and the capes here are precipitous. The shoreline gradually becomes lower from Cape Kaliakra to the Danube delta. Here, we find a Palaeozoic aggraded platform plain with hills inclining towards the sea.
  From the geomorphologic standpoint, the entire Black Sea shore can be regarded as graded and complex. Alternating accumulative areas - sand spits and bars with abrasion sections - are characteristic of this type of shoreline. Lagoon-like and abrasion-landslide types of shore are most widespread in the north-western part of the Black Sea. The abrasion phenomenon is quite characteristic of the whole shoreline and in places takes complex forms.
  Landslides and slumps occur periodically on loess and clay shores, which are subsequently washed away by the sea. In such places the cliffs, which have been formed by the surf through abrasion, are almost vertical and relatively high. Extensive landslides develop in locations where Pontic limestone and Meotian clays (abrasion terraces) form the foundation of cliffs.
  The higher the shore and the harder the rock, the slower the rate of abrasion. Capes and small peninsulas are formed in such places. The most noteworthy are Tarkhankut, Khersones, Sarych, Meganom, Doob, Pitsunda, Chum, Ince, Baba, Emine, and Kaliakra.
  There are no large islands in the Black Sea. The biggest one is Zmeiny (1.5 km2), located in front of the Danube delta, 37 km off shore. Berezan Island is situated at the mouth of Berezansky Liman; while Kefken Island is just off the southern Black Sea coast, 92 km east of the Bosphorus. All are smaller than Zmeiny. There are several other small islands in Burgas Bay.
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