Activities  Assessments  GEO  Carpathians Environment Outlook (KEO)

The "Carpathians Environment Outlook" (KEO) project was initiated in early 2004 by UNEP's Division of Early Warning and Assessment (DEWA)/GRID-Geneva and the Regional Office for Europe (ROE).

The KEO report is a sub-regional examination and synthesis of the environmental situation in the greater Carpathian region, that includes parts of seven countries (the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Serbia & Montenegro, the Slovak Republic and Ukraine). KEO is being carried out in a "bottom-up", collaborative and consultative style, similar to its parent products, UNEP's Global Environment Outlook (GEO) assessments at the global level.

Download the final report available in pdf format

Introductory sections: Foreword, About this Report, About the KEO Process, Executive Summary, Table of Contents (7.73Mb)

Chapter One: Background and Introduction (11.04Mb)
1.1 Main Geographical Features
1.2 Human Influences in the Carpathians
1.3 Modern-day Impacts on Environment and Current Responses

Chapter Two: Socio-Economic Driving Forces(7.73Mb)
2.1 Macro-Economic and Structural Policy Overview
2.2 Economic Driving Forces and Pressures
2.3 Societal Driving Forces and Pressures

Chapter Three: State of the Carpathians’ Environment and Policy Measures (20.91Mb)
3.1 Species, Habitat and Landscape Diversity
3.2 Forest Resources
3.3 Land Resources
3.4 Mineral Resources
3.5 Water Resources
3.6 Atmospheric Processes
3.7 Waste and Hazardous Chemicals
3.8 Environment and Security
3.9 Urban Development and Cultural Heritage

Chapter Four: Outlook 2020: Three Scenarios for the Carpathian Region’s Future Development (25.01Mb)
4.1 Methodological Approach
4.2 Driving Forces, Critical Uncertainties, Challenges and Fundamental Assumptions
4.3 Three Scenarios for the Carpathian Region

Chapter Five: Conclusions and Options for Action (4.29Mb)
5.1 Overall Conclusions
5.2 Current Policy Approaches
5.3 Future Policy Framework – Options for Action

Annexes - List of Figures, List of Boxes, List of Tables, List of Maps, Acronyms & Abbreviations, Acknowledgements (10.41Mb)

Project Objectives:

Project Activities:

The KEO 'Kick-off' Workshop was held on 3-4 March 2004 in Budapest, and co-hosted by the Hungarian Ministry of Environment and Water and GRID-Budapest. The major purpose of this event was to explore the interest and potential in preparing a sub-regional report in the “GEO style”. Two KEO Steering Group Meetings followed, on 17-18 September 2004 in Warsaw, and on 6-8 July 2005 in Vienna, in order to discuss and plan practical requirements of the project. The Steering Group is composed of National Focal Points (incl. Ukraine, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and Slovakia), representatives of UNEP’s Division of Early Warning and Assessment (DEWA-Europe), Regional Office for Europe (ROE) staff, and regional NGOs (CERI, DAPHNE, GRID-Warsaw, WWF).

The first KEO Experts Workshop was held in Zakopane, Poland on 11-13 April hosted by and in collaboration with GRID-Warsaw, in order to provide an opportunity to convene, discuss and finalise plans for the content of the KEO report, and define the role of national representatives and others in the process. Participants at this "brainstorming" event came from all seven Carpathian countries, as well as prominent regional NGOs and relevant UNEP offices. During the meeting, they were able to complete the proposed contents of the report, analyse possibilities and limitations in data gathering and processing, select indicators to be used for each of the themes covered in the KEO, specify national inputs to the writing process, and define near-future activities and plans.

The Carpathians Environment Outlook 2007 report was launched at the fourth European Ministerial Conference on “Environment for Europe” in Belgrade, on 10 October 2007, during the side event on "Mountain Partnerships", at the joint EEA-UNEP-UNDP stand, at the Sava Conference Centre.

Geographical Scope:

Download here map showing the KEO study area boundary overlaid on the Landsat ETM Mosaic (cca 2000) of the Carpathian region (TIFFformat, preview below). The image mosaic is a false-color composite created from 26 Landsat ETM scenes, and using bands 4, 3, and 2 for the red, green, and blue layers.

KEO Past Events

The KEO Regional Stakeholders Consultation (RSC) was held on 18-20 October 2006 in Banska Bystrica, Slovakia, and represented a major opportunity in the lifetime of the KEO process to consult with a large and varied group of persons from (mostly within) the region and seven Carpathian countries on the draft one version of the KEO report and the broader KEO process. Up to 60 persons were invited, and over 40 persons participated in the three-day period of the meeting. The RSC was organized to allow both for extensive presentation of the overall process and draft one chapters of the report by CLAs, and then intensive discussion both via plenary sessions and three break-out groups (BoGs) covering each KEO Chapter. The full list of issues covered in the BoGs included identifying major policy messages from, and emerging issues in, each of the chapters, as well as any gaps and overlaps in material covered. Additionally, BoG I also focused on developing a concept for KEO Chapter 4 ‘Outlook 2005 to 2020’. During the last half-day session, a critique of the KEO process to date was conducted in plenary, along with a proposal for follow-up actions, “next steps” and near-future plans, that will lead to publication and launch of the final version of the KEO report by mid-2007. Among these, a KEO Final Drafting Meeting will be organised in Romania in March 2007 to allow thorough content homogenisation and integration.

The third KEO Steering Group (SG) Meeting was held on 6-7 July 2006 at the office of the Carpathians Framework Convention Interim Secretariat in Vienna, and provided an opportunity to examine all aspects of progress made on the KEO reporting process since the previous SG meeting (7-8 July 2005), and discuss early phases of drafting with the six Chapter Lead Authors (CLAs). Several aspects relating to the implementation of the KEO reporting process were reviewed, focusing in particular on links with the UNEP-led (and ROE managed) Carpathian Framework Convention (CFC) and its Vienna-based Interim Secretariat, and the new Carpathian CADSES Project prepared and led by the latter (which will assist KEO with co-financing), the status of data collection and integration work by the KEO Lead Data Centre (LDC) UNEP/GRID-Warsaw; organizational aspects including planning for the KEO Regional Consultation to be held in October 2006; and other issues relating to the preparation and launch of the report by mid-2007.

An Orientation Session for KEO Chapter Lead Authors (CLAs) was organized by DEWA/GRID-Europe and held on 27 February 2006, at UNEP's International Environment House in Geneva. The six KEO CLAs were invited for in-depth discussions on all aspects of the KEO report and its drafting/preparation, including the formation of Chapter Working Groups, data & indicators, etc. The meeting was essential to the progress of the project, providing an opportunity for the newest KEO project members (CLAs) to familiarize themselves with each other and the UNEP staff leading the process, as well as with the entire KEO process and its requirements, and to develop a near-term action plan regarding their immediate responsibilities.